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Brunei, two small disconnected enclaves surrounded by the Malaysian state of Sarawak, lies on the northern coast of Borneo. The Sultan serves as his own prime minister, minister of defense, foreign minister, and minister of finance. He is advised by several councils, including a Legislative Council and Privy Council, which he appoints. The oil and gas industry accounts for over half of GDP and 90 percent of government revenues. However, it generates only a small fraction of employment, and most of the population works directly for the government. Brunei has extremely low manufacturing capacity and imports most of its manufactured goods and food.

Oil and gas revenue have helped to make Brunei one of the world’s richest economies, but long-standing efforts to modernize the economic structure have met with only limited success. Recently, a higher priority has been placed on measures to diversify the economy and attract more foreign investment, and the corporate tax rate has been cut to 18.5 percent.

At a glance


Country Name



Brunei Darussalam












Bandar Seri Begawan



Government type



absolute Monarchy or Sultanate



Administrative divisions



4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong



National Holidays



National Day- 23rd February



Fiscal year



1st April – 31st March






Bruneian Dollar (BND)



Sultan and Prime Minister



Sir Hassanal Bolkiah (since 5th October 1967)






443,593 (July 2017 est.)



Net migration rate



2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 populations (2017 est.)


GDP (purchasing power parity)



$33.73 billion (2016 est.)


GDP- composition by sector



Agriculture: 1.1%


Industry: 60.4%


Services: 38.5% (2016 est.)



Agriculture- Products



Rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs






Petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation



Major Exports



mineral fuels, organic chemicals



Major Exports - Partners



Japan 36.1%, South Korea 14.9%, Thailand 10.9%, India 9.3%, NZ 5.6%, Australia 5% (2015)



Major Imports



machinery and mechanical appliance parts, mineral fuels, motor vehicles, electric machinery



Major Importers Partners



Singapore 27.9%, China 25.3%, Malaysia 12.3%, UK 10.6%, South Korea 4.9% (2015)



Natural resources



Petroleum, natural gas, timber






Malay (official), English, Chinese



Ethnic groups



Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other indigenous 3.4%, other 20.6% (2011 est.)






Tropical hot, humid, rainy






Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia